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Fabrizio/Precision Teaching Workshop Notes

Behavior Analysis =

  • Experimental Analysis of Behavior (The investigation through highly controlled and systematic scientific manipulation of the governing laws of behavior)
  • Behaviorism (The philosophical underpinnings of behavior science)
  • Applied Behavior Analysis (The application of laws derived from Experimental Analysis of Behavior to problems of human concern)

Instructional Technologies Derived from ABA

  • Discrete Trial Training
  • Direct Instruction
  • Mathematics
  • Incidental Teaching
  • Precision Teaching
  • Programmed Instruction
  • Errorless Learning
  • Stimulus Equivalence
  • Personalized Systems of Instruction

History of Fluency Based Instruction

  • Skinner - rate as a metric of behavior - active learner
  • Lindsley - Standard Celeration Chart
  • Haughton - fluency concept


  • You will have exactly 1 minute to ....
  • Write/Count by 5's (eg 5,10,15,20, etc)
  • Don't start until I say "please begin"

Fluent is defined by

  • Flowing
  • Effortless
  • Well practices
  • Accurate
  • Second nature
  • Automatic

Fluency - the definition of Mastery =

  • Accuracy + Speed
  • Quality + Pace
  • Frequency of Correct Responses
  • Doing the right thing without hestitation
  • Automatic or second nature response
  • True mastery

Results of Fluency

  • Retention and maintenance of skills and knowledge
  • Endurance, attention span, resistance to distraction
  • Stability - the ability to engage in the skill easily in face of distraction
  • Application or transfer of training (creativity)
  • Adduction - skills that produce new patterns of responding

Percent correct is misleading

  • 100% correct is bad
  • Ceiling on percent correct
  • One learner may get 100% and the other only 80% but the 100% learner took twice as long!
  • A learner could get 80% right one day (8 out of 10) but 100% a day later (2 out of 2) - is the learner really improving?

Aims - performance standards

Some initial research based aims:

130-150 per min
130-150 per min
30-35 per min
55-60 per min
50-55 per min
30-35 per min
30-35 per min

Examples of Language Skills Taught

  • Hear/Touch Colors
  • Hear/Touch Animals
  • Hear/Touch Objects (clothing, food, furniture, vehicles,etc)
  • Hear/Touch People
  • Hear/Do Receptive Instructions
  • Hear/Touch Objects by feature, function, and class
  • See/Say Colors
  • See/Say Animals
  • See/Say Objects (clothing, food, furniture, vehicles,etc)
  • See/Say People
  • See/Say Nouns in the room
  • See/Say Nouns in a book
  • See/Say object by feature, function, and class

Random Notes:

  • Movements per minute- add other categories if running out of steam to fillin minute timing
  • ELF - CV VC co articulation
  • Attend to number of syllabals
  • Ben Bronze Academy in Conn have data on web
  • Practice everyday
  • Distributed practice vs. Concentrated practice
  • Goal is based on previous performance (not just yesterday)
  • Need 3 for a trend
  • Instruction should be quick and brisk
  • Miss component skill?
  • 3-5 practices per day
  • Given daily practice
  • Clay Starlin
  • Reminder down to zero
  • Develop noticing skills (4-6 statements/minute)
  • SD vs Sdelta
  • What to do when you hear this not when - behavior under narrow fragile control.
  • Trainer trained to Deliver - not select or evaluate

Staff training/Program management

  • 2 or 3 therapists
  • Weekly program review
  • Progress on all skills being taught or practiced
  • Interventions prescribed when needed
  • New skill identified
  • Weekly coaching of therapists
  • in situ and videotaped observations of teaching with feedback
  • Timed practice describing program components
  • Weekly teaching goals set (measurable)
  • Salary tied to performance

Feedback system for staff training

  • Organization
  • Neat/clean
  • Materials complete
  • Accessible
  • Tim until 1st response < 2min
  • Expectations
  • Goal on current data
  • Show/tell what goal is
  • Show reinforcer
  • Tell reinforcer and reaching goal
  • State expectation for learning skills
  • Follow thru on reward delivery
  • Instructional Delivery
  • Get attention before deliver first cue
  • Provide clear focus cue
  • Provide response cue
  • Clear visual spacial presentation
  • Deliver cue as scripted
  • Verifies student responses during initial stages of instruction
  • Allow thinking time where appropriate
  • Provides no individual Cuing
  • Speech in rhythmic
  • Tone of voice
  • Once accurate, builds student's rate of responding across stimuli
  • Provides pre-conditions
  • Data Collection
  • Needed data sheets are present and setup before instruction begins
  • Records data as instruction progress in?)
  • Data are recorded accurately
  • Data are graphed immediately at end of activity
  • Error Correction
  • All errors are corrected
  • Waites no more than 2 seconds for response
  • Onces modeleed, delivers cue again
  • Accepts only target resonse as ??
  • Conducts daily checks
  • Intervenes takes <3 min to show?
  • Discriminate beteween when intervention and ??instruction as needed
  • Reinforcement
  • Behavior Management
  • Correct Responses
  • Errors
  • Prompted REsponses
  • Misbehavior
  • Response Cues

Component/Compiste Analysis

  • Parts (components, elements, tools, links)
  • Wholes (composites, compounds, repertoires, chains)

Conducting Component/Composite Analysis

  1. Select a skill or concept to be taught (composite)
  2. Break the task down into its smallest parts (components)
  3. Teach the components skills
  4. Build fluency on each of the component skills
  5. Teach the composite skill

Haughton's Big 6 + 6 Tool Skills: Elements of Fine Motor Skills

  • Reach
  • Point
  • Touch
  • Grasp
  • Place
  • Release
  • Push
  • Pull
  • Squeeze
  • Tap
  • Twist
  • Shake

Components of Fluency-Based Instruction

  • Skills are established (instruction)
  • Skills are practiced DAILY
  • All practices are timed
  • Performance is graphed on the Standard Celeration Chart (you can find this thru cheap software as a logrithmic chart)
  • Changes are made when the student does not grow
  • Outcomes of Fluency (RESAA) are empirically validated

Traditional DTT vs Fluency-Based Instruction

Emphasis on accuracy only (% correct) Emphasis on rate (responses per minute)
Insuffiecient practice opportunities High number of practice opportunities
Instruction is time intensive

Instruction is not time intensive

Does not guarantee essential learning outcomes Does guarantee RESAA

Timed Practices:

  • All practices are done under timed conditions
  • Timing intervals range according to skill and stage of learning (1 minutes, 30 seconds, 10 seconds, duration timing)